Study Questions

Chapter 14 (8th Ed.)


1.   Define operant behavior, respondent behavior unconditioned stimulus (US), unconditioned response (UR), respondent conditioning, respondent extinction and counterconditioning.


***NOTE: Any behaviors that results from respondent conditioning are called conditioned reflexes. In this situation, the neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus is the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the resulting response is the conditioned response (CR).  The conditioned response is no different then the unconditioned response except it is under the control of the conditioned stimulus. Therefore in the example of pairing classical music with eating (page 176), salivation is both the unconditioned and conditioned response.  When we talk about food in mouth then salivation is the UR. If classical music is being discussed, then salivation is the CR.


2.   Identify the unconditioned reflexes that appear on page 177.


3.   Briefly describe how respondent conditioning procedures can take a bright light (unconditioned stimulus) and pupil constriction (unconditioned response) and create the conditioned reflex of pupil constriction whenever you play your favorite song.


4.   Briefly describe conditioned taste aversion, aversion therapy, respondent conditioning procedure for constipation and respondent conditioning procedure for enuresis.



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