Study Questions

Chapter 12 (8th Ed.)


1.   Define punisher, punishment, unconditioned punisher, conditioned punisher, exclusionary timeout, nonexclusionary timeout and response cost.


***NOTE: an aversive stimulus is a stimulus that activates pain receptors or other sense receptors that typically evoke feelings of discomfort. Aversive stimuli are often used as unconditioned punishers.


2.   Identify four categories of punishers and give an example of each.


3.   How would you determine if a verbal reprimand was a punisher for a particular child? Note: no direct quote from the book is available for this answer.


4.   How is response cost different from timeout?


5.   How is response cost different from extinction?


6.   What five factors influence the effectiveness of punishment?


8.   What do the authors recommend to people thinking about applying a punishment procedure?


8.   Describe a situation where a verbal reprimand might be a positive reinforcer not a punisher?


9.   How should a punisher be delivered?


***NOTE: Consider the pitfall in telling a child to "wait until your father gets home" for punishment:


     1. delivery of punisher is delayed and can actually occur after a desirable behavior.

     2. father becomes a conditioned punisher

     3. father is punished by coming home


10. What are six harmful side-effects to punishment?



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