Study Questions

Chapter 10 (8th Ed.)


1.   Define shaping and terminal behavior.


2.   Summarize shaping procedures into three steps.


*** NOTE: The method of successive approximation is another name used to describe shaping procedures because shaping involves successive applications of the principles of positive reinforcement and extinction. In other words you reinforce closer approximation to the desired behavior while extinguishing poor approximations.


3.   When do you use shaping procedures?


4.   Briefly describe how parents shape language acquisition.


5.   What are five aspects of a behavior that can be shaped?


6.   What is the difference between fading and shaping?


7.   Identify three rules of thumb for using shaping procedures.


8.   Provide and example of each of the two types of pitfalls associated with shaping.


9.   Give two reasons why it is often difficult to eliminate undesirable behaviors commonly seen in special needs children using extinction and alternative reinforcement procedures.


10. What is the general rule found in guideline 4d (page 134) the authors' suggest for moving to the next approximations when shaping a new behavior.



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