Study Questions

Chapter 6 (8th Ed.)


1.   Define intermittent reinforcement, schedule of reinforcement, ratio strain, post reinforcement pause, and limited hold.


2.   What is the opposite of continuous reinforcement?


3.   What are four advantages to using intermittent-reinforcement schedules to increase and maintain behaviors instead of a continuous reinforcement?


4.   Briefly describe fixed-ratio (FR), variable-ratio (VR), fixed-interval (FI), variable-interval (VI), fixed-duration (FD) and variable-duration (VD) schedules of reinforcement.


5.   Give an example of each of the above schedules of reinforcement.


6.   When are ratio schedules used?


7.   Why are simple intervals schedules not often used in behavior modification programs?


*** NOTE: behaviors under the control of a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement show a characteristic long pause after reinforcement (postreinforcement pause), followed by a gradual increase in responding until the rate is extremely rapid.  This characteristic pattern is called a fixed-interval scallop.


8.   Give an example of an fixed-interval with limited hold (FI/LH).


9.      What is Hernstein's matching law?


10. When working with concurrent schedules, what do the authors recommend for the reinforcers associated with the desirable alternative behaviors?


11. What is the most common pitfall of intermittent reinforcement?



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