Study Questions

Chapter 4 (8th ed.)


1.   Define unconditioned reinforcer, conditioned reinforcer, back-up reinforcer, token, token system and generalized conditioned reinforcer.


2.   Provide an example of a unconditioned and conditioned reinforcer in your life.


3.   What is one backup reinforcer associated with a token system that uses money, i.e., U.S. dollars.


4.   What four factors that influence the effectiveness of conditioned reinforcers?


***NOTE: A conditioned reinforcer most effective when the backup reinforcer does not follow each occurrence.


5.   Which of the reinforcers in Figure 3.3 (pages 36-37) are unconditioned reinforcers and which are conditioned reinforcers?


6.   Describe a situation where saying "No" to a child (or some other negative verbal stimuli) could actually be a conditioned reinforcer?  What is the backup reinforcer in your example?


7.   Identify five rules (guidelines) for applying conditioned reinforcers.



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